\(\def \u#1{\,\mathrm{#1}}\) \(\def \abs#1{\left|#1\right|}\) \(\def \ast{*}\) \(\def \deg{^{\circ}}\) \(\def \tau{\uptau}\) \(\def \ten#1{\times 10^{#1}}\) \(\def \redcancel#1{{\color{red}\cancel{#1}}}\) \(\def \BLUE#1{{\color{blue} #1}}\) \(\def \RED#1{{\color{red} #1}}\) \(\def \PURPLE#1{{\color{purple} #1}}\) \(\def \th#1,#2{#1,\!#2}\) \(\def \lshift#1#2{\underset{\Leftarrow\atop{#2}}#1}}\) \(\def \rshift#1#2{\underset{\Rightarrow\atop{#2}}#1}}\) \(\def \dotspot{{\color{lightgray}{\circ}}}\) \(\def \ccw{\circlearrowleft}\) \(\def \cw{\circlearrowright}\)
How Things Move
Why Things Move

Index

absolute temperature scaleTemperature (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
absorbedHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
accelerationNewton's Second Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
Acceleration (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
acceleration due to gravityAcceleration (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
adjustable forcesAdjustable vs Fixed Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
air resistanceAir Resistance (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
alternating currentWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
ampereSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
amperesElectric Current (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
amplitudeWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
angular accelerationAngular Acceleration (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
Angular Acceleration (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
angular displacementAngular Displacement (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
antinodesStanding Waves (in Chapter 10: Waves)
antiparallelTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
apertureDiffraction (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
apparent sizeAngle Measurements (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
arc lengthDegrees and Radians (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
atmospheric pressurePressure (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
axisFocal Point (in Chapter 13: Images)
bar magnetsMagnetic Poles (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
base unitsSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
basisVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
batteriesBatteries (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
belsDecibels (in Chapter 10: Waves)
bernoulli's principleBernoulli's Equation (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
boiling temperaturePhase Changes (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
buoyancy forceBuoyancy (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
capacitanceCapacitance (in Chapter 15: Electric Potential)
carnot engineCarnot Engines (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
central maximumDiffraction (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
Resolution (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
centrifugal pseudoforceUniform Circular Motion (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
centripetal accelerationLinear & Angular Motion (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
charge carriersCharge Carriers (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
circuit elementLoop Rule (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
closed systemEntropy (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
coefficient of kinetic frictionKinetic Friction (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
coefficient of performanceHeat Pumps (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
coefficient of static frictionThe Breaking of Static Friction (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
collisionsBouncing Off Walls (in Chapter 5: Impulse and Momentum)
compass needleMagnetic Poles (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
componentsVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
compressionSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
concaveThin Spherical Devices (in Chapter 13: Images)
conductionHeat (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
conductorsCharge Carriers (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
conservation of momentumConservation of Momentum (in Chapter 5: Impulse and Momentum)
conservedEnergy Conservation (in Chapter 6: Energy)
constructive interferenceInterference (in Chapter 10: Waves)
convectionHeat (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
conventional basisVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
conventional currentElectric Current (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
convexThin Spherical Devices (in Chapter 13: Images)
cosineTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
coulombPositive and Negative (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
coulomb’s constantCoulomb's Law (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
coulomb’s lawCoulomb's Law (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
crestsWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
critical angleTotal Internal Reflection (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
critical dampingDamped Oscillation (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
currentElectric Current (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
cycleWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
damped oscillationDamped Oscillation (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
decibelsDecibels (in Chapter 10: Waves)
degreesDegrees and Radians (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
densityDensity (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
derived unitSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
destructive interferenceInterference (in Chapter 10: Waves)
diffraction gratingDiffraction Grating (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
diffuse reflectionLaw of Reflection (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
dipole fieldMagnetic Field (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
directly proportionalProportionality (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
Proportionality (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
displacementWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
displacement vectorsDisplacement Vectors (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
divergeImages (in Chapter 13: Images)
diverging deviceDiverging Devices (in Chapter 13: Images)
don't-know-don't-careThe Five Equations (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
doppler effectDoppler Effect (in Chapter 10: Waves)
dragAir Resistance (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
efficiencyHeat Engines (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
elasticCollisions (in Chapter 6: Energy)
electric field linesElectric Fields and Potential (in Chapter 17: Electric Fields)
electric field vectorElectric Fields and Potential (in Chapter 17: Electric Fields)
electric potential energyPotential Energy (in Chapter 15: Electric Potential)
electromagnetic spectrumLight (in Chapter 10: Waves)
electronsProtons and Electrons (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
emfBatteries (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
engineering notationFormal Scientific Notation (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
entropyEntropy (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
equilibrium pointWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
equipotential lineEquipotential Lines (in Chapter 15: Electric Potential)
equivalent resistanceEquivalent Resistance (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
faradsCapacitance (in Chapter 15: Electric Potential)
first law of thermodynamicsFirst Law of Thermodynamics (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
fixed forceAdjustable vs Fixed Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
flow rateFlow Rate (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
fluidWhat is a Fluid? (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
focal lengthFocal Point (in Chapter 13: Images)
focal pointFocal Point (in Chapter 13: Images)
forceWhat are Forces? (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
force diagramStatic Friction (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
force pairNewton's Third Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
force tableForce Tables (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
force twinsNewton's Third Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
frame of referenceFrames of Reference (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
free fallFree Fall (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
frequencyPeriod and Frequency (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
Frequency (in Chapter 10: Waves)
fringesYoung's Two-Slit Interference (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
fundamental frequencySound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
Standing Waves (in Chapter 10: Waves)
gasWhat is a Fluid? (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
gramSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
gravitational potential energyGravity and Work (in Chapter 6: Energy)
heatHeat (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
heat capacityHeat Capacity (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
heat engineHeat Engines (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
heat enginesPerpetual Motion (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
heat pumpsHeat Pumps (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
hertzPeriod and Frequency (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
history graphHistory Graphs (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
imageImages (in Chapter 13: Images)
impulseImpulse (in Chapter 5: Impulse and Momentum)
in phaseWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
incident rayHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
inclined planeA Block on a Ramp (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
index of refractionIndex of Refraction (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
inelasticCollisions (in Chapter 6: Energy)
inertiaNewton's Second Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
inertialFrames of Reference (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
inertial frames of referenceNewton's First Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
initial phaseSimple Harmonic Motion (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
inline notationInline Notation (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
insulatorsCharge Carriers (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
intensityIntensity (in Chapter 6: Energy)
Decibels (in Chapter 10: Waves)
interfaceHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
inversely proportionalProportionality (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
junctionJunction Rule (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
kelvinTemperature (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
SI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
kiloMetric Prefixes (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
kilocaloriesPower Flow (in Chapter 6: Energy)
kilogramSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
kilowatt-hoursPower (in Chapter 6: Energy)
kinetic energyKinetic Energy (in Chapter 6: Energy)
kinetic frictionKinetic Friction (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
kirchhoff loop ruleLoop Rule (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
kirchhoff's junction ruleJunction Rule (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
latent energyPhase Changes (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
latent heatPhase Changes (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
lens equationLens Equation (in Chapter 13: Images)
lever arm vectorTorque (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
liquidsWhat is a Fluid? (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
logarithmLogarithms (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
longitudinalWave Pulse (in Chapter 10: Waves)
loudnessSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
magnetic fieldMagnetic Field (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
magnetic field linesMagnetic Field (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
magnetic forceMagnetic Poles (in Chapter 18: Magnetic Fields)
magnificationMagnification (in Chapter 13: Images)
magnitudeMath with Vector Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
massMass vs Weight (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
Newton's Second Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
mass densityDensity (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
maximally inelasticCollisions (in Chapter 6: Energy)
mediumWave Pulse (in Chapter 10: Waves)
megaUnderdetermined (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
melting (or freezing) temperaturePhase Changes (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
meterSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
SI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
metric prefixUnderdetermined (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
metric prefixesMetric Prefixes (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
metric systemSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
modeStanding Waves (in Chapter 10: Waves)
moment of inertiaAngular Acceleration (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
momentumMomentum (in Chapter 5: Impulse and Momentum)
motion diagramMotion Diagrams (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
net forceNewton's Second Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
neutralPositive and Negative (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
Conservation of Charge (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
newtonOur First Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
newton's first lawNewton's First Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
newton's second lawNewton's Second Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
newton's third lawNewton's Third Law (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
newton-metersTorque (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
nodesStanding Waves (in Chapter 10: Waves)
noncontactContact Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
normalHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
normal forceOur First Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
nucleusProtons and Electrons (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
ohm's lawResistors (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
orderYoung's Two-Slit Interference (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
oscillationWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
out of phaseWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
overdampedDamped Oscillation (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
overtonesSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
parallelEquivalent Resistance (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
path lengthInterference (in Chapter 10: Waves)
pendulumPendulum (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
periodWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
Period and Frequency (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
Frequency (in Chapter 10: Waves)
perpetual motion machinesPerpetual Motion (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
perpetual motion machines of the second kindPerpetual Motion (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
pitchSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
point chargeCoulomb's Law (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
polarizedPolarization (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
positive x-directionVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
positive y-directionVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
potential energyGravity and Work (in Chapter 6: Energy)
powerPower (in Chapter 6: Energy)
power suppliesBatteries (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
pressurePressure (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
pressure wavesSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
protonsProtons and Electrons (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
pulseWave Pulse (in Chapter 10: Waves)
quarksProtons and Electrons (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
radiansDegrees and Radians (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
radians per secondAngular Velocity (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
rarefactionSound (in Chapter 10: Waves)
rayIndex of Refraction (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
ray tracingRay Tracing (in Chapter 13: Images)
real imageTypes of Images (in Chapter 13: Images)
reflectedHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
reflected rayLaw of Reflection (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
reflection gratingsDiffraction Grating (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
refractsTransmission of Light (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
refrigeratorsHeat Pumps (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
relaxation lengthBlock on a Spring (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
resistanceResistors (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
resistance reductionResistance Reduction (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
resistorsResistors (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
restoring forceWhat Are Oscillations? (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
revolutionsAngular Displacement (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
scalarVectors (in Appendix B: Vectors)
schematic symbolBatteries (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
secondSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
SI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
second law of thermodynamicsPerpetual Motion (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
Entropy (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
seriesEquivalent Resistance (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
si unitsSI Units (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
similarTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
simple harmonic motionSimple Harmonic Motion (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
sineTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
sinusoidal wavesFrequency (in Chapter 10: Waves)
snapshotWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
snell's lawSnell's Law (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
solidWhat is a Fluid? (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
sound intensity levelDecibels (in Chapter 10: Waves)
source chargesCoulomb's Law (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
specific heatHeat Capacity (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
spectroscopyDiffraction Grating (in Chapter 11: Wave Optics)
specular reflectionLaw of Reflection (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
speedVelocity vs Speed (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
Velocity vs Speed (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
speed of lightIndex of Refraction (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
spring constantSprings (in Chapter 6: Energy)
standing waveStanding Waves (in Chapter 10: Waves)
static equilibriumStatic Equilibrium (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
static frictionStatic Friction (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
stiffnessSprings (in Chapter 6: Energy)
sublimation temperaturePhase Changes (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
suctionPressure (in Chapter 8: Fluids)
superpositionInterference (in Chapter 10: Waves)
systemTotal Momentum (in Chapter 5: Impulse and Momentum)
tally methodLoop Rule (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
tangentTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
tangential accelerationLinear & Angular Motion (in Chapter 4: Rotational Motion)
target chargeCoulomb's Law (in Chapter 14: Electric Charge)
tensionOur First Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
terminalsEquivalent Resistance (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
thermal energyHeat (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
Heat Capacity (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
thermal equilibriumHeat (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
thermal reservoirHeat Capacity (in Chapter 7: Thermodynamics)
thin spherical devicesThin Spherical Devices (in Chapter 13: Images)
time intervalAverage Velocity (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
torqueTorque (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
total internal reflectionTotal Internal Reflection (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
transmittedHow Light Travels (in Chapter 12: Ray Optics)
transverseWave Pulse (in Chapter 10: Waves)
trigonometric ratiosTrigonometric Functions (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
troughsWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
tupleVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
turning pointGraphing Position (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
Graphing Velocity (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
underdampedDamped Oscillation (in Chapter 9: Oscillations)
unit vectorComponent Form (in Appendix B: Vectors)
unit-vector notationVector Basis and Notation (in Appendix B: Vectors)
unitsUnits (in Appendix A: Miscellany)
unknownsUnderdetermined (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
vectorWhat are Forces? (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
Vectors (in Appendix B: Vectors)
velocityVelocity vs Speed (in Chapter 2: Laws of Motion)
virtual imagesTypes of Images (in Chapter 13: Images)
wattsPower (in Chapter 6: Energy)
Power (in Chapter 16: Circuits)
waveFrequency (in Chapter 10: Waves)
wave equationWavespeed and The Wave Equation (in Chapter 10: Waves)
wavefrontWavefronts (in Chapter 10: Waves)
wavelengthWavelength (in Chapter 10: Waves)
weightOur First Forces (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
Mass vs Weight (in Chapter 1: Equilibrium)
weightlessnessWeightlessness (in Chapter 3: Linear Motion)
workWork (in Chapter 6: Energy)
zero vectorAdding Vectors (in Appendix B: Vectors)

Variables

Variable NameSymbolUnitsChapterSection
heat capacity\(C\)J/KChapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat Capacity
specific heat\(c\)J/kg/KChapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat Capacity
capacitance\(C\)FaradsChapter 15: Electric PotentialCapacitance
Coefficient of Performance\(COP\)--Chapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat Pumps
Displacement\(\Delta x\)mChapter 3: Linear MotionDisplacement Vectors
Gravitational Potential Energy\(E_G\)JChapter 6: EnergyGravity and Work
Kinetic Energy\(E_K\)JChapter 6: EnergyKinetic Energy
Latent Energy\(E_L\)JChapter 7: ThermodynamicsPhase Changes
Spring Potential Energy\(E_S\)JChapter 6: EnergySprings
Efficiency\(\eta\)--Chapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat Engines
Thermal Energy\(E_{th}\)JChapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat Capacity
Moment of Inertia\(I\)kg m2Chapter 2: Laws of MotionAngular Acceleration
Intensity\(I\)W/m2Chapter 6: EnergyIntensity
Current\(I\)AChapter 16: CircuitsElectric Current
Kinetic Friction\(K\)NChapter 2: Laws of MotionKinetic Friction
Spring Constant\(k\)N/mChapter 6: EnergySprings
Latent Energy per kg\(L\)J/kgChapter 7: ThermodynamicsPhase Changes
Mass\(m\)kilograms (kg)Chapter 1: EquilibriumMass vs Weight
Coefficient of Kinetic Friction\(\mu_K\)--Chapter 2: Laws of MotionKinetic Friction
Coefficient of static friction\(\mu_S\)--Chapter 1: EquilibriumThe Breaking of Static Friction
Normal Force\(N\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumOur First Forces
Power\(P\)WChapter 6: EnergyPower
Power\(P\)watts (W)Chapter 16: CircuitsPower
Pressure\(P\)PaChapter 8: FluidsPressure
Flow Rate\(\Phi\)m3/sChapter 8: FluidsFlow Rate
Heat\(Q\)JChapter 7: ThermodynamicsHeat
Heat\(Q\)JChapter 7: ThermodynamicsFirst Law of Thermodynamics
Density\(\rho\)kg/m3Chapter 8: FluidsDensity
Static Friction\(S\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumStatic Friction
Entropy\(S\)J/KChapter 7: ThermodynamicsEntropy
Tension\(T\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumOur First Forces
Temperature\(T\)KChapter 7: ThermodynamicsTemperature
Torque\(\tau\)N mChapter 1: EquilibriumTorque
Speed\(v\)m/sChapter 2: Laws of MotionVelocity vs Speed
Weight\(W\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumOur First Forces
Weight\(W\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumAdjustable vs Fixed Forces
Weight\(W\)Newtons (N)Chapter 1: EquilibriumMass vs Weight
Work\(W\)JChapter 6: EnergyWork
Acceleration\(\vec a\)m/s2Chapter 3: Linear MotionAcceleration
Buoyancy\(\vec B\)NChapter 8: FluidsBuoyancy
Impulse\(\vec J\)NsChapter 5: Impulse and MomentumImpulse
Momentum\(\vec p\)NsChapter 5: Impulse and MomentumMomentum
Velocity\(\vec v\)m/sChapter 2: Laws of MotionVelocity vs Speed